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Russell's Viper
 
 
Description
  • Average length 100 – 120 cm, heavy,
  • Pair of 1 to 1.5 cm. long hypodermic needle like teeth in upper jaw, connected to poisonous salivary glands on both side,
  • Body stout, rough in appearance.
  • Scales strongly keeled.
  • Triangular head broader than neck; scales on upper surface of head small, strongly keeled.
  • Nostril very large
  • Eye has vertical pupil
  • Tail Short, thin, Brown or yellowish-brown, with three longitudinal series of prominent, large brown or black oval or round spots. The spots may have pointed ends, may meet a form of chain-like pattern, or may have narrow white or cream margins.
  • Teeth are like hinges,
  • Inject 150-200 mg. venom/bite,
  • Lethal dose is 50 mg. venom,
  • Poisonous effect starts from ½ hour to 24 hours
Behavior
  • Usually Nocturnal.
  • Found in open grassy areas, scrub jungle, forest edges, rocky hillocks, dense thorny hedgerows and in and around mangroves (Mumbai coast).
  • Feeds on rodents
  • When disturbed hisses loudly, like a pressure cooker and only bites as a last resort.
  • Though usually slow, capable of incredibly fast strikes.
  • Being heavy bodied ambush hunters, they are more likely to stand their ground than other venomous snakes.
  • Most people are bitten at night when they step on a viper.
  • Usually not fatal, any Russell’s Viper bite must be treated as quickly as possible with antivenom serum available in India.
 
INCEDENCE OF BITES
 
Incedenceofbites
  • Mostly it bites in the morning, day time , evening & at early night time while traveling or doing routine farm work , Mostly bite on extremities,
  • Incidences round the year but more incidence during monsoon,
 
SIGNS & SYMPTOMS
 
Russelvipersigns
  • Big bite marks with bleeding,
  • Swelling at bite site,
  • Severe pain at bite site,
  • Swelling may extends up to half of body,
  • Vomiting,
  • Pain in abdomen,
  • Diplopia,
  • Haemoptysis,
  • haematuria,
  • haemetamesis,
  • Drooping of eyelids, (Some time only neurotoxic effect),
  • Convulsion,
  • Acute renal failure,
  • Hypotension & circulatory shock,
  • DIC,
  • ARDS,
  • Respiratory failure,
  • Gangrene, Necrosis ,
  • Death may be due to renal failure, DIC, ARDS
 
Investigations
 
Investigations
  • Laboratory : CBC, Sugar, Urea, S. Creatinine, BT, CT, PT, S. Electrolyte,
  • X-ray Chest to rule out other disorders,
  • ECG,
 
MANAGEMENT
 
Russelvipermanagement
 
  • Mild Effect
  • Inj. TT,
  • Antibiotics,
  • IV fluids,
  • Inj. ASVS in infusion , Loading dose of ASVS to control bleeding,
  • Catheterization,
  • Catheterization,
  • Inj. ASVS till active symptoms control,
  • Moderate Effect
  • Inj. TT,
  • Antibiotics,
  • IV fluids,
  • Inj. ASVS in infusion , Loading dose of ASVS to control bleeding,
  • Catheterization,
  • Analgesics,
  • Inj. ASVS till active symptoms control,
  • Some times faciotomy require,
  • Some times intubation require,
  • Treatment for renal failure,
  • Severe Effect
  • Inj. TT,
  • Antibiotics,
  • IV fluids,
  • Inj. ASVS in infusion , Loading dose of ASVS to control bleeding,
  • Catheterization,
  • Analgesics,
  • Inj. ASVS till active symptoms control,
  • Some times faciotomy require,
  • Some time intubation require,
  • Treatment for renal failure,
  • Artificial respiration,
  • Oxygen,
  Dr. D. C. Patel M. S. (Gen. Surg.)
     
 

Wide Experience in treating Snake bite patients since last 18 years, with having very less mortality. In year 2004, 449 patients were treated & NOT A SINGLE DEATH WHILE TREATMENT.
(0% Mortality) .

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